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For 25 years, CLASP’s Child Care and Early Education (CCEE) team has been instrumental in ensuring that millions of families with children have equitable access to affordable and quality care and education. We are so deeply proud of the impact CLASP’s CCEE team has had over the last 25 years.–rom leading the charge in securing billions of dollars in relief resources during the Great Recession and COVID-19 pandemic – to the reauthorization of the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) in 2014 – all the while continuing the extensive and much needed research and advocacy in the field, CLASP’s efforts have resulted in millions more children having access to affordable, high quality child care. Over the coming months, we will plan to highlight key people, including former and current CCEE staff, CLASP leadership and partners, and notable moments in the team’s history.

Mark your calendars for our culminating event – the 25th Anniversary Celebration! On Wednesday, September 25, 2024 at 6:00pm ET we will bring together CLASP and the CCEE team’s alumni, friends, and partners to celebrate some of our greatest achievements, and learn about the bold vision for the work ahead.

With 25 years of experience and expertise behind us, we’re also looking ahead to the next 25, reimagining the narrative of child care in this country and what it means to have true affordable and accessible care for everyone. Our vision remains the same: to advance racial, gender, and economic justice by centering people with lived experience to advocate for equitable access to affordable child care and early education that meets families’ and providers’ needs.

RSVP below to join us this fall on Wednesday, September 25th at 6:00pm ET. We can’t wait to see you there! More details on event location and virtual options will be announced closer to the event.


The following statement can be attributed to Elizabeth Lower-Basch, deputy executive director for policy at the Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP).  

Washington, D.C., June 27, 2024–Today in a pair of cases, the Supreme Court’s conservative majority overturned a 40yearold precedent, known as “Chevron deference,” which generally required courts to defer to the expertise of agency rulemakers. This precedent has supported tens of thousands of rules used by federal agencies to execute regulatory authority on topics from the environment to financial services to patient, consumer, and worker protections, and protected them from frivolous lawsuits. With this change, all regulations will be much more vulnerable to litigation – which will delay implementation even when the regulations are eventually upheld – and judges will be able to make decisions grounded in their personal opinions rather than the substantive knowledge of agency experts.  

Exactly how damaging this decision will be remains to be seen; Justice Roberts in his decision claims that it “does not call into question prior cases that relied on the Chevron framework.” But the decisions in Loper Bright Enterprises v. Raimondo and Relentless, Inc. v. Department of Commerce raise the stakes for judicial appointments at all levels, as well as increase the need for Congress to pass detailed legislative instructions that leave less room for judicial meddling. Because countless federal regulations support people with low incomes, these decisions have the potential to significantly affect their lives. 


By Alycia Hardy, Stephanie Schmit, and Rachel Wilensky

National Report

This report analyzes variations in eligibility and access to Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) subsidies in 2020. State decisions on implementation within the CCDBG program, along with historically insufficient federal and state funding, limit parents’ access to child care assistance. We analyze state-level Administration for Children and Families CCDBG participation data by state, race, and ethnicity, with analysis on both state and federal income eligibility limits. As an update to our previous report with 2019 CCDBG data on inequitable access, this iteration includes a new analysis of data on potentially eligible children, or children who qualify for receiving CCDBG assistance based on the outlined eligibility requirements.


National State-Level Income Eligibility Fact Sheet

This fact sheet outlines CCDGB subsidy eligibility and receipt for children ages 0-13 across the country, analyzing national totals including variations by race and ethnicity, based on state income eligibility.


State-by-State Fact Sheets

Inequitable Access to Child Care Subsidies by State in 2020

These fact sheets outline CCDBG subsidy eligibility and receipt for children ages 0-13 in each state, including variations by race and ethnicity. (See note below about states marked with *, indicating data limitations.)

Alabama Nebraska
Alaska Nevada
Arizona New Hampshire*
Arkansas New Jersey
California New Mexico
Colorado* New York
Connecticut* North Carolina
Delaware North Dakota
District of Columbia* Ohio*
Florida Oklahoma
Georgia** Oregon
Hawaii Pennsylvania*
Idaho Rhode Island*
Illinois* South Carolina
Indiana South Dakota
Iowa* Tennessee
Kansas Texas*
Kentucky Utah*
Louisiana Vermont*
Maine* Virginia
Maryland Washington*
Massachusetts* West Virginia
Michigan Wisconsin*
Minnesota Wyoming


* Due to data limitations, including sample size limitations in the American Community Survey and/or missing and/or invalid CCDF data from the Administration for Children and Families, we were unable to conduct analyses on potential eligibility and CCDBG access for all racial and ethnic groups in the indicated states.
** Georgia, which did not report any data on race and ethnicity, is excluded from all state and national race and ethnicity analyses, and thus does not have a state fact sheet.

Register Now

From May 19-22, CLASP’s Child Care and Early Education team will be presenting at Child Care Aware of America’s 2024 Symposium in Arlington, VA. The symposium is centered on the question: “How do we capitalize on our wins and lessons learned and boldly tackle our field’s hardest challenges?” In response, the team will be delivering three presentations.

On Sunday, May 19, Stephanie Schmit and Alisha Saxena will be presenting Inequitable Access to Child Care Subsidies (link forthcoming). This session will cover how limited federal investments, state funding constraints, and restrictive policies make the Child Care Development Fund (CCDF) out of reach for far too many children and families. The presentation will also explain how access to CCDF subsidies has varied across all 50 states and DC by race and ethnicity. The session will be aimed at helping decision makers and advocates understand the current landscape.

On Monday, May 20, Rachel Wilensky, Alyssa Fortner, and Shira Small will be presenting Opportunities for States to Expand Access to Child Care Assistance. This session will detail the lack of a comprehensive child care and early education system and how that impacts access to child care assistance. It will review four key policy levers that can equitably increase access within the confines of the current system and highlight examples of positive state progress. The session will be aimed at leaders seeking meaningful ways to improve equitable access to child care assistance.

On Wednesday, May 22, Tiffany Ferrette and Alyssa Fortner will be presenting Centering Black Families: Equitable Discipline through Improved Data Policies in Child Care. This session will explore how enduring anti-Black racism in child care can be addressed to support systemic change in discipline policies through equitable data practices. This session will be aimed at those interested in ensuring Black children have equitable access to high-quality, affirming, and safe child care.

By Tiffany Ferrette, Diane Girouard, Maria Estlund, Rachel Wilensky, Alisha Saxena, and Karen Schulman

This resource summarizes the changes required or encouraged in the final CCDF rules and outlines encouragements to consider. We focus on requirements and encouragements and do not cover every aspect of the final rule, such as technical changes and clarifications on background checks and other provisions. However, we have provided examples from states that have already implemented key requirements as well as other information to support state efforts.

This rule is not directly attached to additional funding or higher allocations for states. However, the recent Further Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2024 includes a $725 million, or 9 percent, increase in discretionary funds to the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) above last year’s allocation. While the increase to CCDBG is needed, concerns related to economic recovery, unemployment, and inflation persist, as well as the looming expiration of American Rescue Plan funds on September 30, 2024. Some states have been able to allocate additional state resources to child care and early education. But fully supporting state implementation of the requirements outlined, in addition to implementing any of the encouraged improvements, requires significant and sustained new federal and state investment.

>> Read the full brief

Last year, the Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP) released a report, Putting the Pieces Together for Families with Young Children: Aligning State Health and Human Services, Nutrition, Child Care, and Paid Family and Medical Leave. This report highlights the challenges parents of young children face in accessing the benefits and services they need to thrive and the steps that some states are taking to make this process easier. In this webinar, CLASP staff will interview parents, advocates, and administrators from California, Washington, and Washington D.C. who will offer insight into what it takes to build an aligned system of supports for families in this critical period.


>> Register <<

By Shira Small and Stephanie Schmit

4 min read.

Now that the federal fiscal year (FY) 2024 budget is finalized, we’re moving into advocacy for FY2025, which begins on October 1. The first step in the yearly budgeting process is the release of the President’s budget, which is a mechanism for the President to share his priorities and vision for the forthcoming fiscal year. President Biden’s recently released FY2025 budget proposes bold investments in children and families. It prioritizes improved access to child care and recognizes the need for increased funding for families, providers, and the economy. While congressional action is needed to make the president’s proposals a reality, the budget’s investments make President Biden’s recognition of the value of child care clear.  

Given the expiration of the final child care relief investments and the need for resources to implement the new Child Care Development Fund (CCDF) final rule, investments in child care in the FY2025 budget are critically important to ensure that positive progress made at the state level can be maintained and that more children have access to care.  

The president’s budget includes both proposed investments in mandatory spending (longer-term, more sustainable funding) and discretionary spending for FY2025 (year-to-year investments approved through the appropriations process).  

Affordable Child Care for America 

President Biden’s Affordable Child Care for America initiative is the most notable proposed investment in child care and early education. The initiative would invest $600 billion in mandatory child care and universal pre-K over the next 10 years.  

If implemented, the initiative would guarantee affordable care for families earning up to $200,000 a year from birth through kindergarten, capping the daily cost of care at $10 for most families. The budget estimates that this would extend child care access to 16 million children and save families over $600 a month on average per child, helping parents and especially women re-enter the workforce. The increased investment would also go toward raising compensation for child care providers.  

The proposed budget would also fund universal preschool for four-year-olds and help expand preschool enrollment for three-year-olds. Parents would have the option to access preschool using a variety of options such as child care centers, public schools, Head Start, and more. 

FY2025 Discretionary Proposals for Child Care and Early Education Programs 

The following discretionary investments in child care and early education programs are included in the FY2025 budget: 

President Biden’s budget reflects the administration’s effort to invest in the care economy and extend affordable child care to more children and families. These investments can only be realized if Congress makes a strong commitment to creating a sustainable child care system that works for children, families, and providers. It is long past time that the child care sector receives the funding that recognizes its value to families and the economy and meets children’s needs. 

Due to the timing of President Biden’s budget release, funding proposals were compared to FY2023 investments within the budget documents as FY2024 funding bills had not yet been finalized. We maintained those comparisons in this piece to remain consistent with the numbers and increases outlined in the President’s budget documents. On March 23, Congress passed the FY2024 funding bill, which included significant increases in CCDBG and Head Start. The CCDBG investment in FY2024 therefore exceeds the discretionary amounts in President’s FY2025 proposed budget. We hope Congress will recognize the ongoing need for increased funding for these important programs and deliver on the investments advocated for in our FY2025 community letter. 



As part of the federal funding package Congress approved last month, the state will receive almost $12 million more over the next year to help low-income families pay for child care, according to estimates from The Center for Law and Social Policy. That brings Washington’s total for the federal grant program this money will flow under to around $128 million.

Read the full article here.

By Liz Bell


In North Carolina, the subsidy investment equates to about $24 million more in Child Care Development Block Grant (CCDBG) funds, according to a state-by-state breakdown from the Center for Law and Social Policy, a national nonpartisan nonprofit. CCDBG is the federal source of funding for states’ subsidy assistance programs, which help low-income parents afford child care.

Read the full article here.

On March 23, 2024, President Joe Biden signed the Further Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2024 into law. The act’s allocations for fiscal year (FY) 2024 included a significant increase of $725 million in discretionary funds for the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG). This was in addition to a smaller increase for Head Start and level funding for other important child care and early education programs such as Parts B and C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.

CCDBG is a critical support for families with low incomes who, without access to assistance, would likely be unable to afford their current child care arrangements. However, due to limited federal funding, the program was only able to serve 18 percent of eligible children in 2020.[1] The annual appropriations process is an important opportunity to increase federal investments in programs that respond to increased need and ensure funding keeps up with rising inflation.

The FY2024 CCDBG appropriation of $8.7 billion represented an increase of 9 percent, or $725 million, above the previous year’s funding.[2] This increase is a positive step forward in a difficult funding environment. However, we need much more investment in child care to truly meet the needs of families and providers; to deliver on the new requirements in the 2024 final rule on Improving Child Care Access, Affordability, and Stability in CCDBG; and to support states in maintaining and building on the positive improvements from the pandemic relief funding.

As concerns about economic recovery, unemployment, and inflation persist—and with the federal child care funding through the American Rescue Plan Act set to expire on September 30, 2024—significant and sustained increases in annual discretionary funding remain a critical support. And, given the fragile nature of the child care sector caused in part by decades of insufficient federal funding, the need for long-term and sustainable increases for child care remains ever present.

The following table provides each state’s actual distribution of grant year[3] (GY) 2023 annual discretionary funds;[4] the estimated distribution for GY2024 discretionary funds; and the estimated increase from 2023 to 2024. The increases in 2024 for each state range from $910,000 in Wyoming to $88 million in Texas.

For questions, please contact Stephanie Schmit at

State Distribution of GY2023 Discretionary Funds Estimated Distribution of GY2024 Discretionary Funds[5] Increase from GY2023 to GY2024 Discretionary Funds
Alabama $142,609,329 $157,154,309 $14,544,980
Alaska $13,260,771 $14,613,261 $1,352,490
Arizona $185,096,490 $203,974,811 $18,878,321
Arkansas $99,638,070 $109,800,334 $10,162,264
California $753,500,129 $830,350,951 $76,850,822
Colorado $84,322,763 $92,922,992 $8,600,229
Connecticut $54,523,163 $60,084,078 $5,560,915
Delaware $19,895,267 $21,924,421 $2,029,154
District of Columbia $11,883,837 $13,095,891 $1,212,054
Florida $441,113,418 $486,103,362 $44,989,944
Georgia $317,820,970 $350,236,098 $32,415,128
Hawaii $26,897,347 $29,640,655 $2,743,308
Idaho $44,718,419 $49,279,330 $4,560,911
Illinois $233,707,994 $257,544,289 $23,836,295
Indiana $171,467,643 $188,955,934 $17,488,291
Iowa $72,959,695 $80,400,984 $7,441,289
Kansas $67,235,470 $74,092,935 $6,857,465
Kentucky $140,087,611 $154,375,396 $14,287,785
Louisiana $141,504,238 $155,936,508 $14,432,270
Maine $21,418,590 $23,603,110 $2,184,520
Maryland $98,099,044 $108,104,340 $10,005,296
Massachusetts $99,909,733 $110,099,705 $10,189,972
Michigan $212,718,838 $234,414,412 $21,695,574
Minnesota $100,562,168 $110,818,683 $10,256,515
Mississippi $94,348,400 $103,971,162 $9,622,762
Missouri $150,588,278 $165,947,045 $15,358,767
Montana $19,982,100 $22,020,110 $2,038,010
Nebraska $43,765,096 $48,228,776 $4,463,680
Nevada $65,493,410 $72,173,200 $6,679,790
New Hampshire $16,264,699 $17,923,565 $1,658,866
New Jersey $147,878,694 $162,961,106 $15,082,412
New Mexico $66,533,555 $73,319,431 $6,785,876
New York $357,011,697 $393,423,957 $36,412,260
North Carolina $235,784,820 $259,832,934 $24,048,114
North Dakota $14,277,486 $15,733,672 $1,456,186
Ohio $272,731,543 $300,547,919 $27,816,376
Oklahoma $121,009,871 $133,351,884 $12,342,013
Oregon $72,388,389 $79,771,410 $7,383,021
Pennsylvania $243,242,551 $268,051,293 $24,808,742
Puerto Rico $48,996,165 $53,993,371 $4,997,206
Rhode Island $17,717,650 $19,524,705 $1,807,055
South Carolina $140,670,054 $155,017,244 $14,347,190
South Dakota $21,668,578 $23,878,595 $2,210,017
Tennessee $211,736,964 $233,332,395 $21,595,431
Texas $859,633,625 $947,309,191 $87,675,566
Utah $95,913,285 $105,695,652 $9,782,367
Vermont $8,986,530 $9,903,082 $916,552
Virginia $153,733,954 $169,413,554 $15,679,600
Washington $116,622,646 $128,517,198 $11,894,552
West Virginia $49,333,493 $54,365,104 $5,031,611
Wisconsin $112,457,640 $123,927,395 $11,469,755
Wyoming $8,924,631 $9,834,870 $910,239
United States $8,021,387,000[6] $8,746,387,000[7] $725,000,000[8]

[1] Nina Chien, “Estimates of Child Care Eligibility & Receipt for Fiscal Year 2020,” Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,

[2] CLASP calculation based on enacted appropriations amount according to each appropriations bill, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2023,, Further Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2024,

[3] Fiscal Year (FY) refers to the period from October 1 through September 30, during which states and territories may spend funds awarded in the current and prior years. Grant Year (GY) refers to the year the funds were awarded, although states and territories may liquidate some Child Care Development Fund (CCDF) funding streams in later fiscal years. Note: CCDF refers to the federal funding sources for child care and is used interchangeably with CCDBG in this fact sheet.

[4] CCDBG annual discretionary funds are distributed based on three main factors. The first two factors compare the ratio of the number of children in a state to the number of children in the country within the following categories: the number of children under five and the number of children who receive free or reduced priced lunch. The other factor makes a comparison of the three-year national per capita income with the three-year average state per capital income.

[5] CLASP’s estimated state discretionary funding distributions are derived from the GY2023 CCDF Allocations based on Appropriations, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Administration for Children and Families, 2023, Actual amounts may differ due to the HHS Secretary’s authority and discretion in set-aside funding and re-allocation of previous year’s resources.

[6] The total reflects the discretionary funding amount detailed in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2023, which includes funds for tribes, territories, and state; research, evaluation, technical assistance; and the CCDF hotline and website. This total does not reflect a $80,213,870 transfer based on the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2018 provision giving the HHS Secretary authority to transfer discretionary funding between appropriations. In addition, the total does not include any funds available through the American Rescue Plan Act.

[7] The total includes all discretionary funds for tribes, territories, and states; research, evaluation, technical assistance, federal administration; and the CCDF hotline and website as detailed in the Further Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2024,

[8] The estimated increase in funds from GY2023 to GY2024 is based on the amounts detailed in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2023 and the Further Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2024 and does not reflect the $80 million that was transferred out of CCDBG under the authority of the HHS Secretary in GY2023,

>> Download the fact sheet here